Dom Pedro II Emperor of Brazil
The under-populated Brazilian Empire saw an opportunity in the collapse of the Confederacy to develop its vast wilderness interior. Emperor Dom Pedro II, encouraging the southern colonization societies that sprang up throughout the South after the war, offered to pay one third of the ships passage of all emigrants from any southern port to Rio de Janeiro. The Brazilian government also agreed to sell land at modest prices in any locality desired by the colonists.
To some southerners the Brazilian offer seemed heaven sent. It was a land where they could live with dignity. The climate was mild and good for cotton. Land and labor were cheap, and
protected the institution of slavery (which was not abolished until 1888). The people were easy going and receptive to
strangers. In a short time some of the
emigrants had already become wealthy.
The Rev. Joshua Dunn, for example, had acquired one and a half million
square acres of coastal land for rice and sugar cultivation and was
instrumental in establishing three new navigation companies by 1867. Brazil
The man fated to make the most lasting contribution among the Confederates in Brazil was the indefatigable Colonel William Hutchinson Norris. Norris, the image of a Biblical patriarch, with his great beard and flowering mane, set out for
in 1866, at the age of
65. A native Georgian, and former
Alabama State Senator, Norris was not easily intimidated by either man or
nature. Settling in Brazil state, Norris burned back the
jungle, built his shelters, and set about introducing modern agricultural
techniques to Sao Paulo . He soon turned a profit growing both cotton
and watermelons. Other Confederates
emigrants, many of whom had tried earlier to establish themselves in other
parts of Brazil
and failed, soon learned of Norris’ good luck and moved to this region to join
him. The harder Norris worked the
luckier he became. Brazil
Nine years after the arrival of William Norris a railroad was extended from the city of Sao Paulo to the area where the Confederates were living. The place became officially known as Vila Americana. Later it was incorporated as the city of Americana. Today, Americana, a prosperous little city of eighty thousand, has only three hundred Confederate descendants who still have ties with the city. Four times a year they celebrate a Protestant religious service, enjoy a picnic of southern fried chicken, pecan pie and cornbread.
General George S. Patton once said, “Compared to war, all other forms of human endeavor shrink to insignificance.” Here are four stories about the history of the world IF wars we know about happened differently or IF wars that never happened actually took place.
A brief look at love, sex, and marriage in the Civil War. The book covers courtship, marriage, birth control and pregnancy, divorce, slavery and the impact of the war on social customs.